What Happens If A Star Explodes Near The Earth? 

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People have witnessed supernovae for millennia, but what threat do they pose to life on Earth? This video is sponsored by Brilliant. You can get started for free, or the first 200 people to sign up via brilliant.org/veritasium get 20% off a yearly subscription.
A massive thanks to Prof. Hans-Thomas Janka for helping us with the physics of supernovae and GRBs. A massive thanks to Prof. Brian Thomas for all of his help with the terrestrial effects of supernovae and GRBs. This video would not have been possible without them. Also thanks to Dr. Luke Barnes for his initial help with the literature search.
Hydrogen bomb vs Supernova fact was taken from this great article by xkcd/Randall Munroe - what-if.xkcd.com/73/ (based on the calculation by Andrew Karam, 2002)
Cosmic bubble footage from
Neutrino driven SN explosion simulations from iopscience.iop.org/article/10...
Melott, A. et al. (2019). Hypothesis: Muon radiation dose and marine megafaunal extinction at the End-Pliocene supernova. Astrobiology, 19(6), 825-830. - ve42.co/Melott1
Thomas, B. C. et al. (2016). Terrestrial effects of nearby supernovae in the early Pleistocene. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 826(1), L3 - ve42.co/Thomas1
Melott, A. L., & Thomas, B. C. (2019). From cosmic explosions to terrestrial fires?. The Journal of Geology, 127(4), 475-481. - ve42.co/Melott2
Fields, B. et al. (2019). Near-Earth supernova explosions: Evidence, implications, and opportunities. arXiv preprint arXiv:1903.04589. - ve42.co/Fields1
Thomas, B. C., Atri, D., & Melott, A. L. (2021). Gamma-ray bursts: not so much deadlier than we thought. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 500(2), 1970-1973. - ve42.co/Thomas2
Melott, A. et al. (2004). Did a gamma-ray burst initiate the late Ordovician mass extinction?. International Journal of Astrobiology, 3(1), 55-61. - ve42.co/Melott3
Firestone, R. B. (2014). Observation of 23 supernovae that exploded less than 300 pc from Earth during the past 300 kyr. The Astrophysical Journal, 789(1), 29. - ve42.co/firestone1
Janka, H. T. (2017). Neutrino emission from supernovae. arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.08713. - ve42.co/Janka1
Janka, H. T., & Hillebrandt, W. (1989). Neutrino emission from type II supernovae-an analysis of the spectra. Astronomy and astrophysics, 224, 49-56. - ve42.co/Janka2
Janka, H. T. (2017). Neutrino-driven explosions. arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.08825. - ve42.co/Janka3
Karam, P. A. (2002). Gamma and neutrino radiation dose from gamma ray bursts and nearby supernovae. Health physics, 82(4), 491-499. - ve42.co/Karam1
Melott, A. L., Thomas, et al.. (2017). A supernova at 50 pc: effects on the Earth's atmosphere and biota. The Astrophysical Journal, 840(2), 105. - ve42.co/Melott4
Ludwig, P., et al. (2016). Time-resolved 2-million-year-old supernova activity discovered in Earth’s microfossil record. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(33), 9232-9237. - ve42.co/Ludwig1
Gritschneder, et al. (2011). The supernova triggered formation and enrichment of our solar system. The Astrophysical Journal, 745(1), 22. - ve42.co/Gritschneder1
Motizuki, Y., Takahashi, et al. (2009). An Antarctic ice core recording both supernovae and solar cycles. arXiv preprint arXiv:0902.3446. - ve42.co/Motizuki
Zucker, C. et al. (2022). Star formation near the Sun is driven by expansion of the Local Bubble. Nature, 601(7893), 334-337. - ve42.co/Zucker1
Hirata, K. et al.(1987). Observation of a neutrino burst from the supernova SN1987A. - ve42.co/Hirata1
Hayes, L. A., & Gallagher, P. T. (2022). A Significant Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance Associated with Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 221009A. Research Notes of the AAS, 6(10), 222.
Special thanks to our Patron supporters:
James Sanger, Louis Lebbos, Elliot Miller, Brian Busbee, Jerome Barakos M.D., Amadeo Bee, TTST, Balkrishna Heroor, Chris LaClair, John H. Austin, Jr., OnlineBookClub.org, Matthew Gonzalez, Eric Sexton, John Kiehl, Diffbot, Gnare, Dave Kircher, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Bill Linder, Paul Peijzel, Josh Hibschman, Mac Malkawi, Mike Schneider, John Bauer, jim buckmaster, Juan Benet, Sunil Nagaraj, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Stephen Wilcox, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi
Written by Petr Lebedev & Derek Muller
Edited by Fabio Albertelli
Animation by Fabio Albertelli, Jakub Misiek, Alex Drakoulis, Ivy Tello, Mike Radjabov, and Charlie Davies
Filmed by Derek Muller
Additional Research by Kovi Rose & Katie Barnshaw
Video/photos supplied by NASA, ESA, Pond5, and Getty Images
Music from Epidemic Sound & Jonny Hyman
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang









mayochupenjoyer 10 ヶ月 前
i’m extremely proud of the way my dad explained supernovae to me when i was about 5. he told me to put my hands out, facing each other, and then he put his hands on mine. he then told me to push outwards, as hard as i can, while he pushed inwards, which made my hands collapse. he said that when a star wasn’t strong enough anymore then gravity won. now that i’m older, i’m really enjoying this more comprehensive explanation
Riven Doto
Riven Doto 10 ヶ月 前
that is really cool
Keefy Gizzle
Keefy Gizzle 10 ヶ月 前
You had an uncommonly cool dad...
Eirik Ødegård
Eirik Ødegård 10 ヶ月 前
Thanks I will explain it like this to my children 😊
Luis D. Ruiz Santiago
Luis D. Ruiz Santiago 10 ヶ月 前
Your dad is amazing ❤️
Nikolay Tonev
Nikolay Tonev 10 ヶ月 前
I'm very glad that my parents were telling me about black holes when I was about 4...
Jack Kellett
Jack Kellett 10 ヶ月 前
Ah yes, cosmic horrors beyond our comprehension. Thanks man
Mardikus 9 ヶ月 前
John Petrakis
John Petrakis 9 ヶ月 前
You absolutely missed his point at the end as probably most of the thumbs up to your reply. If it hadn't been fro a cosmic dice roll a long long time ago WE wouldn't be here!!!!!!!
SHM 99
SHM 99 9 ヶ月 前
@John Petrakis I didn't
Michael Delisieux
Michael Delisieux 9 ヶ月 前
What happens? NOTHING! Just change the bulb.
Space_Debris 9 ヶ月 前
I sometimes run the video at a less compressed speed for just those slower neuron fires a chance to catch up.
Rob Allegar
Rob Allegar 7 ヶ月 前
Your videos are thought-provoking, well-produced, and fun to watch. Thanks for making such great content.
Florragonis 7 ヶ月 前
Wow! Thats serious dedication, donating 50 dollars for this dude. Seriously, he does deserve it.
dot 7 ヶ月 前
Would have donated it for Ukraine instead.. ..no offense intended, but Ukrainian children need donations much more than a large (and excellent) YT science channel. *Edit:* if there was no Ukraine war, i would 100% agree to your opinion and give the donation to Veritasium.
Florragonis 7 ヶ月 前
@dotThats some *serious* dedication there, too! I wonder if Ukraine will win the war, let’s wait and see. Time flies, and it will be a long one.
Nacho Varga
Nacho Varga 7 ヶ月 前
@dot this was not the time or place for this comment. He may have already donated for Ukraine. You don't know that.
Tim R.
Tim R. 7 ヶ月 前
@dot I haven't been following up on the war much but I am damn sure that they are good off. The US has given practically it's lung to the country; I'm sure the UN is probably helping; and there are so many donations and even some organizations relocating families out of the warzone. This feels pretty petty to comment. How about you donate there? Or how about you donate to homeless women and children? Or how about you donate to cancer treatment? Or Children's hospitals? Or to schools that don't have proper funding? Or to the residents in the Ohio Train Derailment? You get what I'm saying now? Honestly this comment I felt was disrespectful. People can donate to whatever they want; whenever they want; however they want. That's it. If you believe someone should've donated with THEIR money; you can instead with your own money. And before you even question me; no I did not donate anything. Period.
B Joy
B Joy 7 ヶ月 前
I was surprised a few years ago to learn that gold and heavier elements are unlikely to be created in a standard supernova but require a more extreme ultranova or similar event such as star collisions to produce special elements like gold. That just adds to how lucky we are to have such abundance of uranium, gold, etc on our planet.
Sathanya M
Sathanya M 3 ヶ月 前
Actually fission stops at nickel not iron. It's a myth that iron is the most stable element, but nickel is more stable
Chris Race
Chris Race 2 ヶ月 前
Regular super nova make gold and lots of other stuff. hypernova make black holes from which nothing escapes.
Maximus Zastrow
Maximus Zastrow ヶ月 前
It's almost like somebody did that intentionally Genesis 1:1
Lmao ヶ月 前
I also learned a few years ago somewhere that the earth and the solar system formed from an ultranova, the collision between neutron stars. that was actually incredibly fascinating to me to know that everything that exists around me right now used to be a bunch of neutron star matter
Dr. Azimov
Dr. Azimov 26 日 前
@Sathanya M *Fusion
Stephen 9 ヶ月 前
I always appreciate the value of your productions. The bit where you showed how a star fuses the different elements as time goes on and for how long blew my mind.
bal laurina
bal laurina 8 ヶ月 前
Kevin Wimms
Kevin Wimms 7 ヶ月 前
A small piece of dust would probably blow your mind... How about AC Clark... he's a great scientist too!
Kevin McGregor
Kevin McGregor 7 ヶ月 前
It blew my mind, too, although I had first seen this information a few years ago at an open-house presentation of the Astronomy Department at the University of Manitoba. I don't remember all of the time periods though. Does anyone have a reference for each element, all the way to iron? I was disappointed this video didn't give all of the times. I think in the end it was minutes, or seconds!
Threedog 7 ヶ月 前
@Kevin Wimms Why the insult?
Renosance 6 ヶ月 前
I'm left in awe at the explanation of how some tiny, tiny, weightless, harmless Neutrino... detonates the largest bombs in the known Universe. Just amazing how super-large events can have the smallest origins. Love this. Thank you.
Bruno Simões
Bruno Simões 10 ヶ月 前
I've already seen dozens of videos on JPvid about how a Supernova works, but this is another level. A complete and very well illustrated lesson in under 20 minutes. Veritasium never disappoints.
Star Nutron
Star Nutron 10 ヶ月 前
Don't Read My Profile Photo ok
TheWhiteDeath356 10 ヶ月 前
@Lloyd S nice joke
Bubba Bong
Bubba Bong 10 ヶ月 前
Ok don’t read your profile pic. Got it. Thanks for the warning bro.
EnerJetix 10 ヶ月 前
@Lloyd S ah yes, and pigs fly as well :)
Aeveras 10 ヶ月 前
The fact that a supernova thousands of light years away can cause a measurable change in our atmosphere is absolutely mindblowing to me. The fact that a gamma burst 2.5 BILLION light years away caused a noticeable effect is similarly mind-melting. Astronomy stuff really can be incredible. Thanks for putting together a great video on this!
Lewis Perez
Lewis Perez 10 ヶ月 前
It's a U- Bomb ...
Electric paisy
Electric paisy 7 ヶ月 前
But the GbR got me thinking. Wouldn't it only effect us if one of the two beams is targeted directly at us? Seems like that lowers the chance of a hit even with an explosion within range dramatically to me. I didn't full get from the video if we have to be in the beam or not, but if so, it seems much less impressive to me than the supernova to me. You focus all the energy into two directions, of course it has a much higher range. Its like comparing a rifle to a grenade to me, but I could have understood it wrong.
Mr B
Mr B 7 ヶ月 前
@Electric paisy you are right, a GRB is a very narrow stream of particles, like a rifle, as you very cleverly put it. A stray bullet coming at us in this vast space is very unlikely, but GRBs are much more frequent than supernovae and are deadlier from further away.
joseph debbah
joseph debbah 7 ヶ月 前
yeah exactly I thought we could safely watch the big cosmic fireworks from like a few lightyears away xd but this really changed my perspective on how big these "fireworks" actually are!
Davidsmith smith
Davidsmith smith 10 ヶ月 前
It feels chilling to think about that actually being the end times for which ever species lived within the system.
Words 10 ヶ月 前
Somebody please tell Veritasium to make in depth video about TON-618
Dennis Sylvester
Dennis Sylvester 10 ヶ月 前
And in any nearby system as well.
FOC 9 ヶ月 前
Hmm I don't worry at all, because (if we survive this long) then it is no longer my problem in a few decades xD
Baxterchov 9 ヶ月 前
"...lived within the system." _What species_ , living in _which_ system??
Alexolas 9 ヶ月 前
@Baxterchov I assume whatever sapient species lived in orbit of the star that went supernova On a related note: Has anyone here played or heard of the game Outer Wilds?
Salted Cod
Salted Cod 4 ヶ月 前
This was such a ridiculously interesting episode! I didn’t understand half of it, but it was so exciting to learn all these new things.
steven roper
steven roper 10 ヶ月 前
Thanks for bringing this subject down to earth - very well explained
Rapid Readers
Rapid Readers 9 ヶ月 前
You sir, win best pun of the week!
Mike Oxmall
Mike Oxmall 9 ヶ月 前
I don't want any of those cosmic pipe bombs anywhere NEAR Earth
Manthan Bapat
Manthan Bapat 8 ヶ月 前
@Mike Oxmall good sir, u need to define near, because as mentioned even a star going hypernova 150 MILLION light years away, caused mass extinction on earth
salmon 7 ヶ月 前
@Rapid Readers white
runw1thscissors 6 ヶ月 前
Down to earth huh
Indranil Bagchi
Indranil Bagchi 7 ヶ月 前
This is the kind of video that JPvid thrives on. To explain such catastrophic events without any heavy terminologies is simply genius of you. Makes me wanna research more on this subject. Cheers! Much love from India.
Lmao ヶ月 前
I think a lot of it comes from the visuals, don't know about you but that supernova animation was crazy
Abiezer Rosario
Abiezer Rosario 10 ヶ月 前
Whenever I watch an almost 20 minute long Veritasium video, I never lose interest throughout the video and it's consistently gets my attention. The pacing of him talking quickly and pausing to make a transition makes it easier to retain the information. Also his voice is very clear and comprehensible. As always amazing stuff Veritasium, you never fail to get my attention.
MissionHomeowner 10 ヶ月 前
You expained this clearly yourself.
Peter 10 ヶ月 前
Him and Vsauce are my favorite JPvid learning channels. Veritasium seems more "normal" interesting while Vsauce keeps your attention by being "weird" interesting.
ilona 10 ヶ月 前
Also great choice of background music
Michael Harris
Michael Harris 10 ヶ月 前
couldn't agree more very well put :)
ㅑㅜ샤ㅡㅑㅇㅁ샤ㅜㅎ ㅕㄴㄷ구믇
@Peter i like watching thoughty2 also
8 ヶ月 前
Thanks for the update about the Gamma Burst Ray observed on 9 October on Earth. I learned most of the astrophysics a long time ago and certainly like the comprehensive video display of it, but the consequences for what the effects were on Earth and on it's life that are discovered since are fascinating. It is amazing how much information you have compressed in a single 20 minute video and still be clear about the many subjects. I also like that you show the scientific abstracts. Exceptionally well done!
Kryten42 10 ヶ月 前
Thank you Derek! As always, I learned things. This w as quite a detailed explanation (as far as we know today of course) about some incredible Cosmic events. 👍🤩 I enjoy that, the more we learn, the more questions we have, and the more we want to know!😎
Carter Kane
Carter Kane 2 ヶ月 前
Thanks for bringing this subject down to earth - very well explained. Ah yes, cosmic horrors beyond our comprehension. Thanks man.
James Raymond
James Raymond 7 ヶ月 前
This is an example of a perfect physics lecture, one that is interesting to people of all levels of science. The nucleon binding energy graph explains so much and it is so well explained.
Tim W
Tim W 7 ヶ月 前
Very interesting video, well done! One question: when you picked up the neutrino bursts and then called scientists to watch for a supernovae, did you ever wonder if it might be the prelude to a Gamma Ray Burst? Since both move at the speed of light, the neutrino flash might be our only warning (not that we can do much about it). Just wondering if that ever crossed your mind.
Jscaff 10 ヶ月 前
The connection between astronomy, historic man, and palaeontology as a whole was absolutely mind opening. It is this reason this channel is one of the best channels on JPvid
Tune BoyZ
Tune BoyZ 10 ヶ月 前
That's right lil Jacob 😊
You are a 🤡
You are a 🤡 10 ヶ月 前
timvw01 10 ヶ月 前
They follow the Cosmos format, very good show
imaad rasool
imaad rasool 10 ヶ月 前
Im i agree
Marcelo Festa
Marcelo Festa 10 ヶ月 前
exatamente, q video gostoso
Viral Variety
Viral Variety 10 ヶ月 前
Man! This one solved all my curiosities about supernovae.Straight to the point and I can clearly understand what you want to explain in this content.Thanks mate!
Peter J-S
Peter J-S 9 ヶ月 前
Great video! Very informative and to the point. Great production and visuals. Thank you all for your efforts.
Mike Lucido
Mike Lucido 7 ヶ月 前
I have always appreciated every one of your presentations and I hope I wasn't too rough with what I said about the missing parts of the equation, regarding exploding stars. . I just want you to know I still appreciate everyone of your explanations, including this one. You do a darn good job.
whatsupbudbud 6 ヶ月 前
So much to learn in this short video. Left me wondering whether we can find other ways to catch the neutrinos and thus make them do work for us since there's just this massive flux of them through each of us and everything around.
Daniel Cooper
Daniel Cooper 6 ヶ月 前
I never understood supernovae before - I'm sure I still don't - but now I have a better grasp, and I appreciate that you did this. Thanks!
Sam Siso Hussein
Sam Siso Hussein 10 ヶ月 前
This is far better than a complete sponsored documentary. This is very inspirational and underrated content!
Tom Seeds
Tom Seeds 10 ヶ月 前
Definitely not underrated. But youre right great content.
Ignirium 10 ヶ月 前
yeah, this is basically why i gave up watching TV about 10-15 years ago.
Mihail Milev
Mihail Milev 10 ヶ月 前
@Ignirium bruh lol
belledetector 10 ヶ月 前
13.1m subs doesn´t qualify as underrated ;-)
Sam Siso Hussein
Sam Siso Hussein 10 ヶ月 前
@belledetector haha also true. but still, I believe JPvid creators are still underrated and they deserve more.
Iván Rodríguez
Iván Rodríguez 7 ヶ月 前
It's crazy that not so much time ago, I used to buy dvds or even blue rays with documentaries about this topics. The fact that nowadays it's free on JPvid it's amazing, and with the same quality (even more maybe) I'm very thankful with this kind of creators, the are the real MVP
J D 10 ヶ月 前
I love the intersection of particle physics and celestial mechanics. Our sweet spot of life on this planet, from the primordial ooze to the inevitable end of sentient life, will have its own intersection. Personally, I am hoping for an instantaneous and painless end... bearing witness to the next extinction event is at the very bottom of my "must see" list. Thanks for all your awesome science... may you never run out of material 🙂
Robert Goss
Robert Goss 3 ヶ月 前
Veritasium does it again. Thank you for this clear-headed explanation of complex celestial events.
Rane 2 ヶ月 前
Absolutely a credit to humanity that we were able to work all this out. Like seriously understanding (from Earth) the internal workings of stars is pretty amazing (assuming we are right)
Joe Buk
Joe Buk 8 ヶ月 前
I’m curious how they figured out neutrinos are what causes the super nova. Very interesting. Also I like those magnetic atoms, really cool!
Kevin Armstrong
Kevin Armstrong 10 ヶ月 前
This guy has that enthusiasm it’s like he is as amazed as his viewers. Like he’s not teaching or lecturing he is shearing information. I adore everything he does!
FracturedFungi 10 ヶ月 前
okay 👌 what i can i think 💭 would have been a little bit longer but if i can go on a break and i just make a new thing and it is fine too so much more like 👍 but it looks better and it will just keep you in touch and be 😅😅
Animesh jain
Animesh jain 10 ヶ月 前
How does neon fuse into oxygen (at 3:54) Neon(Atomic no 10) is heavier than oxygen (Atomic no 8)
Semaj_502 10 ヶ月 前
What the hell are these replies ?
FracturedFungi 10 ヶ月 前
@Semaj_502 gamair!!!! 😙🤪 everything looks like it is pretty cool but it is kinda like the green brown green green bell bell brown brown eyes green green brown green green blue green brown green green bell 🛎 orange 🍊 bell 🛎 orange 🍊 tan tan orange 🍊 orange 🍊 tan green bell 🛎 orange 🍊 tan green bell 🔔 orange 🍊 green green brown green bell bell brown brown green green brown brown eyes green green bell 🛎 orange 🍊 tan tan orange green brown green bell bell 🛎 orange 🍊 tan green green brown green bell bell brown brown eyes 👀 tan green bell 🛎 bell 🛎
Jeff Watkins
Jeff Watkins 10 ヶ月 前
Really appreciate excellent videos like this one which explain for us laymen in terms we can understand the immense complexity of the universe which so many great minds have toiled for centuries to uncover. In this era of insane disinformation, this shines a brilliant light on truth. A million thanks!
Jukka Maljanen
Jukka Maljanen 8 ヶ月 前
Question: What is the time scale for things in a supernova? We know that prior to the supernova, the star grows in diameter, but exactly at what rate? How long does the nova shine bright?
Threedog 7 ヶ月 前
I have seen other you-tube videos trying to explain supernovas. Mostly they say something like, once the elements fuse into iron, all fusion stops and the star starts collapsing in on itself at .2 the speed of light. This video explained it a bit more in-depth and really increased my understanding as to why iron is what starts the collapse. Thank you.
Kevin Ward
Kevin Ward 10 ヶ月 前
Great & fascinating video. Very well explained by Derek , cosmic nuclear power is another level to that created by ourselves......that's probably a good thing !! Also the historic and environmental effects of the supernovae very well covered.
TheOdMan 7 ヶ月 前
It's so wild to me how people figure stuff like this out, I can not even really comprehend it when it's explained to me in a very logical and digestible manner like this. I mean I understand the gist of it, the basics, the how. But what I can't really wrap my head around is the why, I find it endlessly fascinating, but my mind isn't set up so that I can actually do much with my fascination, just watch videos like this, or rewatch Carl Sagans Cosmos for the 50:th time, and just enjoy finding out more about the universe.
Luxhya Shah
Luxhya Shah 10 ヶ月 前
Last year, I almost joined the Brian fields research group after listening to his presentation on this topic. He talked about how they had to look through sediment samples to find traces of Fe-60. I thought it was so cool that we could learn so much about the history of our cosmic neighbourhood just by observing earth. It's amazing to see this topic explained so well.
Michael Ansolis
Michael Ansolis 10 ヶ月 前
It doesn't happen "just by observing earth". It's actually a lot of different scientific disciplines coming together to understand what we're looking at. This is even more impressive than you make it sound.
esoteri K
esoteri K 10 ヶ月 前
Where there's a will, there is a way! - Humanity
NoName 10 ヶ月 前
why almost?
YAHUsha 10 ヶ月 前
Jesus Christ is the propitiation for the whole world's sins. They that believeth and are baptized (with the Holy Spirit) shall be saved; but they that believeth not shall be damned. Those led by the Holy Spirit do not abide in wickedness. *God is ONE manifesting himself as THREE;* the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit! Bless him! *For these three are one.* As I am led by the Holy Spirit, nothing I state is a lie, but the truth of God. Anyone who tells you differently is misinformed or a liar. They do not know God, nor led by him. Anyone who *claims* to be a Christian and is against what I am doing, and where I am doing it; the Holy Spirit does not dwell within them, they lack understanding. They know not God, read his word, and their religion is in vain. Do not hear them, they will mislead you, the lost cannot guide the lost.
YAHUsha 10 ヶ月 前
When you trust in God and cast your cares (worries, anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts) upon him, they will be NO MORE! Know that there is power in the name Jesus Christ! His name casts out demons and heals! The world is wicked, evil, and of the devil. I too, was a wicked sinner of the world before I opened my heart to God. I am living proof of God's work and fruitfulness! He is an active God who hears the prayers of his! God's children are set apart (holy) and righteous. The devil is a liar that comes to steal, to kill, and to destroy; that includes your relationship with God! Open your heart to God, repent of your sins (he will forgive you), and let him direct your path. Draw nigh to God, and he will draw nigh to you. Cleanse your hands and purify your heart, lest you walk with the devil and follow him to hell.
yegfreethinker 10 ヶ月 前
Can you imagine what a treat it would be to be able to safely observe a supernova up close à la Star Trek or something but actually do it in real life that would be so awe-inspiring!
john Wow
john Wow 10 ヶ月 前
I think it would be a better treat to see people reaching for their electric blankets when the sun burns out.
ModernValkyrieNOLA 3 ヶ月 前
I thoroughly enjoy the content of this channel! The subject matter is very complex, but it is explained in a consumable way to anyone with a good sense of basic scientific principles. I am a bit of a space nerd, and I can’t always find any truly interesting videos on astronomy and astrophysics that are informative and entertaining without being ass numbingly dull…
David Curry
David Curry 8 ヶ月 前
This is a wonderful sequel to Carl Sagan's Cosmos Episode 9, The Lives of the Stars, still accurate after nearly 40 years. Well done Derek!
hypocratus 9 ヶ月 前
The fusion process was so beautifully explained , especially when you have an idea what he is talking about and why its happening
TehWit 7 ヶ月 前
Another proof that what we take for granted and generally think has always been the norm on Earth is mostly due to insanely vast amounts of luck, has changed and will definitely change again greatly! Great video, thanks!
Student 6 ヶ月 前
I feel like it's not luck. It's like if enough time is given, all the things that can happen will happen. A lot of such events must've occured and the sustainability of life on this planet was one of the outcomes which ended up becoming true and here we are. The same reason why existence of alien looks totally possible.
TehWit 6 ヶ月 前
@Student hard to disagree but.. i don't think everything can happen nor will. On a smaller scale i could have just avoided replying to you. No big deal. On greater scale, a star fart could happen which may diverge slightly the course of a big rock on its way to hit Earth in 1000 years. Who knows though. Fascinating
Less More
Less More 10 ヶ月 前
The fact that we as stardust have evolved to figure this stuff out is completely mind boggling
ChinnuWoW 10 ヶ月 前
It’s no wonder that it had to have happened somewhere within an infinite universe with countless outcomes.
Less More
Less More 10 ヶ月 前
@ChinnuWoW makes it no less amazing
clownavenger 10 ヶ月 前
prob happened a few times in other galaxies and possibly our own we just don't know of yet..
Less More
Less More 10 ヶ月 前
@clownavenger yet…far more likely than not. Even multiple times, given the infinitude, still makes it outrageously rare & wondrous.
clownavenger 10 ヶ月 前
@Less More yeah it's fairly rare if you mean how many square light-years and the amount of time it takes for a single occurrence.
Farhan Amin
Farhan Amin 2 ヶ月 前
My question: how did the ozone layer come to be? How did it re-form after a GRB destroyed it partly?
Filip Kos Maligoj
Filip Kos Maligoj 10 ヶ月 前
Thank you so much for this video! I am just making an analisys and presentation of those deep sea crust research for 60Fe (Knie et al. 2004) you covered and it really helped me to prepare my presentation for non-astrophysical public. Thanks again 😄
Prajesh 10 ヶ月 前
Lmao XD
Ted Kiraly
Ted Kiraly 7 ヶ月 前
As a lifelong fan of all things science, I’ve been aware of and understood the reasons for supernova. That said, I’ve never heard or in this case seen a more meaningful explanation than what you provide in this video. Bravo! 😎
Joaco 9 ヶ月 前
I really love this channel. I learn so much in a very comprehensible way.
Frank Liskaser
Frank Liskaser 5 ヶ月 前
When we talk about the immense power and far-reaching effects of cosmic masses, it's humbling to realize just how tiny and vulnerable we are as humans. It puts our existence as a species into perspective.
Leo Staley
Leo Staley 10 ヶ月 前
I watch an obscene amount of science youtube, and love supernova videos. I learned a ton from this video. You have done something wonderful here Derek.
James Lee
James Lee 10 ヶ月 前
Lni iu I’m
YAHUsha 10 ヶ月 前
Jesus Christ is the propitiation for the whole world's sins. They that believeth and are baptized (with the Holy Spirit) shall be saved; but they that believeth not shall be damned. Those led by the Holy Spirit do not abide in wickedness. *God is ONE manifesting himself as THREE;* the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit! Bless him! *For these three are one.* As I am led by the Holy Spirit, nothing I state is a lie, but the truth of God. Anyone who tells you differently is misinformed or a liar. They do not know God, nor led by him. Anyone who *claims* to be a Christian and is against what I am doing, and where I am doing it; the Holy Spirit does not dwell within them, they lack understanding. They know not God, read his word, and their religion is in vain. Do not hear them, they will mislead you, the lost cannot guide the lost.
YAHUsha 10 ヶ月 前
When you trust in God and cast your cares (worries, anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts) upon him, they will be NO MORE! Know that there is power in the name Jesus Christ! His name casts out demons and heals! The world is wicked, evil, and of the devil. I too, was a wicked sinner of the world before I opened my heart to God. I am living proof of God's work and fruitfulness! He is an active God who hears the prayers of his! God's children are set apart (holy) and righteous. The devil is a liar that comes to steal, to kill, and to destroy; that includes your relationship with God! Open your heart to God, repent of your sins (he will forgive you), and let him direct your path. Draw nigh to God, and he will draw nigh to you. Cleanse your hands and purify your heart, lest you walk with the devil and follow him to hell.
Hussassain 10 ヶ月 前
Agreed, what are some of your favorite science channels?
Pufferfish 10 ヶ月 前
It is so cool tbh i know that humans were not really meant to find out these things or even comprehend them. We were meant to be oogaboogaa at best.
Lawrence Smith
Lawrence Smith 9 ヶ月 前
we need more smart people in this world like this guy right here. thanks for your awesome introduction about our earth and the birth of our solar system good sir.
Dc 10 ヶ月 前
hearing about galactical level problems like this makes me think we really need to get things figured out on our tiny rock fast so we can focus on larger problems, lot of work to do I guess
GRAITOM 🐾 9 ヶ月 前
Haha 5 billion years left for our own sun, let's not waste it 😅
DoctorBones 9 ヶ月 前
Well thats future humanity's problem lol
Kovela Manas
Kovela Manas 8 ヶ月 前
Brilliantly explained ! One of the most detailed videos on Supernovae
David 10 ヶ月 前
Very nicely done video. Avoiding most technical terms and clearly explaining without any need for viewers to know concepts beforehand.
Cowboy Barbaryn
Cowboy Barbaryn 7 ヶ月 前
As cool as it is to learn about this I always wonder how scientists learn this stuff? How did we figure out the composition and lifespan of starts that will outlive us by an immense magnitude and are so far out of our reach?
Carlo 10 ヶ月 前
I would love to see their storyboard when they were planning to produce this video! The storytelling is superb and the simplification (without compromising) of a complicated topic is impeccable.
Vigilant Cosmic Penguin
Yeah, this took a lot of creativity. It's one thing to make a video about supernovae, but this goes beyond just explaining a scientific concept, and it tells a story I haven't seen before.
The title should've been different. It's clickbait for a bunch of overstuffed information.
Fizz 7 ヶ月 前
It's crazy the stuff that's going on in our universe, the absolute scale of it is just mind boggling.
Despond 7 ヶ月 前
More depressing is we are born too soon to know more.
Martin Kuliza
Martin Kuliza 7 ヶ月 前
REMEMBER.... THAT'S FROM YOUR PERSPECTIVE Imagine the vastness of all this from the perspective of a microbiotic organism . from their perspective , JUST US is amazing
Harambe 5 ヶ月 前
Brilliantly written, brilliantly produced. You are the perfect educator.
Vitali Judin
Vitali Judin 3 ヶ月 前
It is interesting to see that in the light of new findings, the carbon cycle is pretty low as it seems to be according the recent publication. Actually a bit scary. I found this small prophecy in E.G. White’s book about her visions (she is seen as a small “post testament” prophets in some specific Christian streams and wrote down many visions she experienced) one could interpret it to be related to star constellation “Orion”: “Dark heavy clouds came up, and clashed against each other. The atmosphere parted and rolled back; then we could look up through the open space in Orion, whence came the voice of God. The holy city will come down through that open space. I saw that the powers of earth are now being shaken, and that events come in order..“
A Pro Player
A Pro Player 7 ヶ月 前
I knew about supernova's and stellar life from around a 2 years but still after reading about it at least 10 times on web and in two books I was unknown about these complexities that happen inside it.
R A 2 ヶ月 前
This man is brilliant! Love your videos.
Totto87 10 ヶ月 前
Love your videos man. I'm a regular joe with no notable math or science skills whatsoever but for some reason your explanations makes sense to me. You should get a Nobel prize for educating the masses in all sorts of subjects. Thank you for the various topics over the years and I hope it will be so many more lessons to listen to in the future. Space is damn scary and amazing at the same time!
Jeffrey Suen
Jeffrey Suen 10 ヶ月 前
Agreed. A Veritasium video with hundreds of thousands of views may have taught/inspired more minds than any regular teacher in a lifetime.
Gireesh G Prasad
Gireesh G Prasad 10 ヶ月 前
I love this channel, but a Nobel Prize is a bit much..
Tony Wu
Tony Wu 10 ヶ月 前
@Jeffrey Suen my love for stem literally stemmed from this channel
Luke Melaia
Luke Melaia 10 ヶ月 前
Very well said.
Stephane Nouafo
Stephane Nouafo 10 ヶ月 前
Ironside Amen! Completely relevant /s
Lawrence Thompson
Lawrence Thompson 9 ヶ月 前
This is amazing. But how do they know all of this? I suppose it is all theory based on knowledge that is way over my head. I believe that these scientists are the only hope that we have to save mankind from destroying itself. Videos like this are very useful in recruiting much needed young minds into being interested in science. Thank You Veritasium!!
Avinash Raghavendra
Avinash Raghavendra 2 ヶ月 前
@Derek. Thank you for another brilliant video. I have read and learnt about stars exploding since my high school and yet you made me learn something new. In the video, you say not all >8 solar mass Stars go supernova but become black holes. Doesn't the formation of black holes a product of core collapse which is an equivalent response to a supernova explosion? Please clarify.. thank you!
Master Gems
Master Gems 7 ヶ月 前
I have always wondered. If a cosmic explosion that could wipe out a Galaxy happens, would we see it just as it happens, millions of light years away or would we only see if long after when it's already too late to prepare ourselves.
Matias Calvo
Matias Calvo 7 ヶ月 前
Do we have any evidence of any star that could become a supernova in the next 50 years for example? I would like to be lucky to witness something like this that I will probably have left of life (hopefully)...
MY VLOGS 7 ヶ月 前
Nothing is better than a episode of vertasium for quality information.
Nifer CE
Nifer CE 10 ヶ月 前
Love how Veritasium took this topic and really went in depth with different scenarios. Unlike other clickbait "Scientific" youtube channels out there
Chris matsen
Chris matsen 10 ヶ月 前
The illustrations in this video are amazing. Very very well done job on this video.
Well, we are going away folks, as we always knew we would. Supernovae just make it the most appropriate way to go about it. Excellent episode Derek, thank you.
JediLoreen 7 ヶ月 前
Our sun will become a red giant. It's not massive enough to become a super nova, if that's what you are thinking.
Mephisto xD
Mephisto xD 7 ヶ月 前
A comment about the "other" type of super nova, described at <a href="#" class="seekto" data-time="519">8:39</a>: The white dwarf actually doesn't collapse and bounce, it is a runaway thermonuclear fusion reaction that creates the explosion. So it is basically a big thermonuclear bomb. Because of this, they generally don't leave a massive object - the core - behind, that forms a neutron star or black hole. Instead the former star is completely destroyed with it's remains flying into all directions.
Bonesofinsanity 9 ヶ月 前
Its explanations like the ones he gives near the end of the video of how we potentially came into being that makes me think we really are a one off life form.
TCF . YTB 6 ヶ月 前
First channel I ever see to take neutrino into account when talking about supernova, very impressive
Jens Riggelsen
Jens Riggelsen 10 ヶ月 前
Small addendum regarding the name Supernova that you mention (<a href="#" class="seekto" data-time="80">1:20</a>): Kepler's teacher and mentor, Tycho Brahe, was the first to publish a book concerning a new star (stella nova), namely SN1572 or "Tycho's Supernova", which appeared 32 years earlier (TWO visible supernovae in a lifetime and NONE since!) Brahe's book was "De nova et nullius aevi memoria prius visa stella", ("Concerning the Star, new and never before seen in the life or memory of anyone").
Nataraj Subramanian
Nataraj Subramanian 10 ヶ月 前
Underrated comment.
mytube001 10 ヶ月 前
SN1987A was visible to the naked eye.
Jens Riggelsen
Jens Riggelsen 10 ヶ月 前
@mytube001 It was indeed visible, but it wasn't in our galaxy, but in one of our closest neighbors, the Large Magellanic Cloud.
mytube001 10 ヶ月 前
@Jens Riggelsen Yes, but you only wrote "two visible supernovae in a lifetime and none since", which isn't correct. No mention of them having to be in our galaxy.
Waryaa Moxamad
Waryaa Moxamad 5 ヶ月 前
20,000 light years away and it cast a shadow on earth!! How can you sleep after thinking of that. Absolutely amazing.
Яᴀʀᴀꜱᴢᴇk 10 ヶ月 前
People were so lucky back then to be able to gaze up at the unobstructed milky way, in any city in the world. It was such an immense source of inspiration and wonderment..
Orius25 7 ヶ月 前
In a way, yes. But they also had no idea what they were looking at.
Supertramp 7 ヶ月 前
On one hand, it is incomprehensible how much we have learned about our universe, but on the other hand, it is incomprehensible how unfathomable the universe still is.
Sanjoy Sanyal
Sanjoy Sanyal 8 ヶ月 前
Thank you Dr. Derek Muller, for your wonderful exposition. I am not an Astrophysicist, far from it, in fact. However, Astrophysics is my addiction-hobby. That's why I watch your videos. I had 2 questions; (A) You said Kepler had witnessed a White Dwarf Supernova in 1604. I read somewhere that White Dwarf's don't go SN. Am I wrong? (B) I had read the sequence of Fusion Reactions is Carbon - Oxygen - Neon - Silicon - Iron. But the Fusion Sequence mentioned by you is somewhat different. Clarification on these points would be highly appreciated, por favor
Anna Kinderman
Anna Kinderman 10 ヶ月 前
I have always admired your ability to elegantly describe the beauty of the universe. Amazing. You are one of the reasons I'm pursuing a degree in physics.
TacoBanana 10 ヶ月 前
Good luck! It's difficult but rewarding. I did bachelors and masters in physics, and loved it. It's also buys you a TON of options professionally, and can get you some very high paying jobs.
Robert J
Robert J 10 ヶ月 前
@TacoBanana what kind of jobs?
TacoBanana 10 ヶ月 前
A pretty broad range @Robert Jušić . As a physicist, in college you'll likely work with: 1 - Coding, like python, Labview, Python or Statistica 2 - TONS of math, you pretty much get a bachelors with a very similar skill set to a mathematician 3 - Equipment training, if you work in research 4 - Technical communication skills: From presentations and paper writing so after graduation, if you learn to communicate your skill set, you can be an analysist (in lots of industries), data eng, software eng, professor, researcher, or most types of engineering roles. My background is in applied physics, but I've worked my entire career as a process eng in manufacturing. The big part is learning how to communicate that the skills you have are useful. Communicating how learning advanced mathematics can help in a real world situation
Robert J
Robert J 10 ヶ月 前
@TacoBanana curently on my 2nd year of mechanichael enginering and constantly anxious that im not gonna find a job that im truly happy or usefull at. How did you menage to comunicate that your skills are usefull?
TacoBanana 10 ヶ月 前
@Robert J I mean, if you go into a job interview, can you articulate how you can use your math and analytical skills to help a business operate? Can you situate how you can help with your knowledge. Also, congrats, everyone gets nervous, but if you are going to mechanical engineering, you should have options!
andy 10 ヶ月 前
I didn't know every half a million years a star passes so close to us that was a fun fact and a bit scary and respect due to his previous work in an observatory you never know who youre learning from with these JPvidrs
Luis Araujo
Luis Araujo 3 ヶ月 前
I thank you very much for sharing this content. I'm Brazilian and I'm learning a lot with you. My English was terrible, but now, I can understand all you said.❤❤❤
Lucas Bittencourt
Lucas Bittencourt 7 ヶ月 前
Thanks for all your videos. They are great. I have a question. At 8'24'' you say some stars "form black holes instead, wich means they do not go supernova". Well, I confess that until now it was my understanding that a black hole is formed after a supernova of a star massive enough. Can you clarify? Thank you again! And congratulations.
Jayson Menchavez
Jayson Menchavez 10 ヶ月 前
I would love to see this happening right before my eyes. Crazy but it's fascinating!
Jovaras Zigmantas
Jovaras Zigmantas 7 ヶ月 前
Hey man great video as well as animations. You said that the iron core has to be more than 1.4S but isn't it the mass of the whole star which should be above this litmit
Jordan Cooper
Jordan Cooper 10 ヶ月 前
Great video! I did a degree in physics and astronomy and can say this was a great, easy to understand review of some of our favourite cosmological objects and I really enjoyed you linking some of the supernova events in the past with extinction events on earth :) I didn't know about some of those connections, thanks as always for sharing!
TreadSteady 10 ヶ月 前
What do you think about micro nova or a shell release?
Vaibhav K
Vaibhav K 10 ヶ月 前
That’s great! Published any papers?
rae0521 10 ヶ月 前
"... easy to understand review..." - Well, Jordan, your brain and mine must be made of material so astronomically different as to defy description.
Huesan 7 ヶ月 前
I can't believe I can know all this information for free. Amazing job!
Jim Henderson
Jim Henderson 7 ヶ月 前
This is crazy stuff. I actually wonder how much of it is actually true vs hypothetical
KingNooby 11 日 前
Respect to veritasium for sacrificing his life and causing a supernova just to show us the truth 🙏🙏🙏
Tolen Tarpay
Tolen Tarpay 10 ヶ月 前
I read somewhere that by the time a star goes "nova" it will have only consumed approx. 3% of it's overall Hydrogen/mass...is that right? Also, I recall they back-calculated that the Hiroshima bomb only "converted" about 3% of it's Uranium pit into blast/energy...is any of that correct? And is there any authentic "significance" to this 3% ratio that keeps popping up? I need to know so I can start prepping for the next Nova...
Fizz 7 ヶ月 前
The ammount of Uranium in the Hiroshima bomb the underwent fission was around 1kg of the 64kg it contained it was an incredibly inneficient design. But even converting that tiny ammount of mass released a whole lot of energy.
Cameron Eridan
Cameron Eridan 7 ヶ月 前
This is unfortunately just one of those times the pattern machines in our heads see things that aren't there.
Tolen Tarpay
Tolen Tarpay 7 ヶ月 前
@Cameron Eridan Oh, I was sure it was a Matrix-glitch; man, I am hanging to take the Red Pill! Psst! Have you got one?
Cameron Eridan
Cameron Eridan 7 ヶ月 前
@Tolen Tarpay what on earth do you want estrogen for
𝝅 8 ヶ月 前
You really did a good job explaining how the neutrino works
Gamina Wulfsdottir
Gamina Wulfsdottir 10 ヶ月 前
Veritasium is consistently better-written, better-edited, and better-explained than any other JPvid channel I've found yet. I wish more science-oriented channels had standards as high as Veritasium.
Aldion Sylkaj
Aldion Sylkaj 10 ヶ月 前
They can't so they accept mediocrity.
soundscape26 10 ヶ月 前
Yeah, but Derek has more than 10 million subscribers and a team working with him... not all channels can afford that.
Star Nutron
Star Nutron 10 ヶ月 前
because Derek is interested in cinematography too thats why his videos are different from others
Haze Skunk
Haze Skunk 10 ヶ月 前
Kurzgesagt is also an amazing channel.
Iso Iso
Iso Iso 10 ヶ月 前
a very nice show! Thanks for the whole staff for the whole stuff.
Pranav mehlawat
Pranav mehlawat 6 ヶ月 前
WOW. Makes me wonder how insignificant our daily problems are in this cosmic scheme of things. Insignificant yet fortunate. Lots of Love to Veritasium from India.
devalapar 7 ヶ月 前
How do Neutrinos transfer their kinetic energy and cause a supernova? Do they constantly interact with Neutrons and Protons via the Weak force until they leave the star? Or is there another way they can transfer their momentum to other particles?
CrispyMOFO91 9 ヶ月 前
This video was surprisingly informative for the average person. Great job.
Kirti Bolegave
Kirti Bolegave 4 ヶ月 前
What if the gamma ray bursts we assume to have came from stars are actually aliens firing nuclear lasers in space wars?
Sebastian Jost
Sebastian Jost 10 ヶ月 前
I never heard about the connection between supernovae and neutrinos, but always found both fascinating.
Tyler Grant
Tyler Grant 10 ヶ月 前
I had never heard of neutrinos
The Blissful Void - 🔵
@Tyler Grant That's okay, first time for everyone with confusing space stuff 😵
dbsti 300
dbsti 300 9 ヶ月 前
It is sort of surreal knowing that everything we see, everyone we know, and every life form that exists and has existed are all from former stars.
Floris 7 ヶ月 前
interesting. i would love to know more about how they make up this teories, and how they come up with these number. thanks!
Boardupman 21 日 前
Damn. Thank you, I love all your videos but this one in particular made my brain go supernova.
JackWill 10 ヶ月 前
I still cannot believe how lucky we are just to be alive. I mean what are the odds...
FohenLeuer 10 ヶ月 前
Like 73% probably
MateoConLechuga 10 ヶ月 前
The odds are 100% because we exist
Nathan Ezra
Nathan Ezra 10 ヶ月 前
@MateoConLechuga ?
Nathan Ezra
Nathan Ezra 10 ヶ月 前
@MateoConLechuga The probability that u will get heads, in a coin flip, isn't 100% if the coin lands on heads.