Spinning Black Holes

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A pulsing black hole in the centre of a distant galaxy sheds light on black hole and galaxy formation. How fast are black holes rotating and how does that rotation change over its life-span?

Huge thanks to Prof. Geraint Lewis and study author Dr. Dheeraj Pasham.

A loud quasi-periodic oscillation after a star is disrupted
by a massive black hole

Special thanks to Patreon supporters:
Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd

Music from epidemicsound.com "Colorful animation 4" "serene story 2" "To the stars 01" "Black Vortex

Animations by Alan Chamberlain and courtesy of NASA









コメント数 5 729
Bri Mills
Bri Mills 年 前
I'm doing my PhD on black holes & I just finished doing an analysis of the black hole spin in GRS 1915+105 (it was actually the first BH in the table of spins you showed). I was super impressed by how accurate everything in your video was! I study all of this for a living right now lol. I also loved the animations - I always have trouble finding a good accretion disk animation which shows how the ISCO shrinks as the black hole spin increases. A fantastic & informative video.
xzzaaqa 15 日 前
@Embir F yeah man I’ll just stop doing physics and take some time to teach you everything you want to know ….. Let’s discuss physics mate . Hahahahahaha dude that’s so funny
Embir F
Embir F 15 日 前
Oh you and I should discuss physics. I would love to learn more
xzzaaqa 22 日 前
That is soooo rad man. Wish I was smart . Find something cool !
Binoy Vudi
Binoy Vudi 22 日 前
Are you single?
Scott Manley
Scott Manley ヶ月 前
Perhaps I'm misunderstanding but isn't ISCO the wrong thing to focus on here regarding on the limit of the rotation, the ISCO is for matter orbiting the black hole. Photons departing radially outwards can escape for any point exterior to the event horizon regardless of the rotation. For a black hole with a rotational parameter of more than 0.28 photons can orbit prograde in the plane of rotation right down to the event horizon. Isn't the problem with rotation parameter > 1 the fact that the kerr metric would create a ring shaped singularity that had a radius larger than the Event horizon, and therefor expose a 'naked singularity'
Pavel 16 日 前
Anything involving tight orbits around the event horizon of a rotating black hole is of paramount nature! Fly safe, Scott! ;)
J M 22 日 前
Does Scott make a habit of commenting on older videos? I’ll have to keep my eyes open for his comments.
Fissile Missile
Fissile Missile 27 日 前
We got cross channel beef going here!
An On
An On 28 日 前
So this vid is popping into everyone’s recommended now lol
Nethaniel Shade
Nethaniel Shade ヶ月 前
Hey Scott, fancy seeing you here. I was wondering the same exact thing. the ISCO is for solid matter, we should be looking at the photon sohere, or the IBCO.
David Terr
David Terr 11 ヶ月 前
It's pretty amazing to me that just 50 years ago, many scientists doubted that black holes existed, whereas now, not only have they been experimentally verified, but we're learning about many of their properties as well as their origins.
Bajoan ヶ月 前
And have taken 2 photos of them!
birdie 💙💎
birdie 💙💎 ヶ月 前
@Glitched Blox WHAT
birdie 💙💎
birdie 💙💎 ヶ月 前
@Glitched Blox how is that sarcastic
Glitched Blox
Glitched Blox ヶ月 前
@birdie 💙💎 The Earth is round /s
Mark1Mach2 24 日 前
Vertasium, I can't thank you enough for these wonderful science videos. For engineers and science loving people like myself, it's very hard to find good quality content as freely available as you make them and on top of it you make them easy to understand, fun and damn interesting. Thank you so much and I hope you continue to make such wonderful videos.
Sven Medyona
Sven Medyona 5 ヶ月 前
When I was 17, I listed all my dream jobs (there were 18 of them). Being a physicist was at the top of that list, teaching number two. Despite living that latter profession, I still enjoy videos like this. Thanks Veritasium for keeping my interest alive. I may not understand it all, but I love it regardless.
Mute Minecraft
Mute Minecraft 28 日 前
You have 69 likes. Thats all I am gonna say
Joschka Zimdars
I found black holes always scary, but finding out they spin at insane speed makes them so much awesomely horrifyingly more scary for me.
SoulReaper 2 ヶ月 前
esra'a Haymoor
esra'a Haymoor 2 ヶ月 前
Same 😫
Joe Momma
Joe Momma 年 前
“Black holes are some of the simplest objects in the universe” I really really hate editing comments but it seems a good amount of you don't realize I was quoting him in the literal same video and have tried disagreeing
fbi agent miyako hoshino
@Black Lyfe they technically are not spheres cause theyre spinning so fast and so they bulge outward no longer looking like a sphere. and non spinning black holes dont exist because of the law of conservation
Janoy Cresva
Janoy Cresva 6 ヶ月 前
I legit read this as soon as he said it 😐
Emperor Sascharoni
Emperor Sascharoni 9 ヶ月 前
They are simple in the sense that with the small bit we know about them there are very little parameters. Like not knowing a child what can you do? Guess age, gender and race nothing else will be easy to guess just by looking at them and with black holes thats the only thing we can do.
Black Lyfe
Black Lyfe 9 ヶ月 前
@Zack 120 its a sphere just like the sun,planets and other celestial bodies
Becca 6 ヶ月 前
Your channel is one of the biggest reasons I’ve decided to finally go back to school, and for certain. No more maybe in a year or maybe next years, I’m going this fall for certain :) . I’m planning on getting a bio-engineering degree, but if I can have it my way instead of time’s way, I hope to get many different scientific degrees, as theres no single subject I can just dedicate my only KNOWABLE life to. Thank you for all the videos you’ve released, and for reminding me of why I fell in love with science as a kid. It’s like I found my passion after all these years, after school and general life circumstances seemed to just be determined to beat it out of me 😭 I will come back to this channel one day!! When things are different, but for the better.
Dan McKee
Dan McKee 2 ヶ月 前
Quick questions from a know-nothing: I'm confused about the dwarf star orbiting the black hole, the one that you described as always there but not visible until the star was sucked in to the black hole. I assume that its orbit is in a place of equilibrium where the gravitational force pulling the dwarf star in matches the centripetal force of the spin pushing it out. But then a star gets sucked into the black hole. Wouldn't that massively change the gravity of the black hole? According to your explanation, such an event would also increase the spin, but are we saying that increase in mass and increase in spin are equivalent somehow? Or did the dwarf star change its orbital pattern after this event? I guess we can't compare before & after, but is it in any way possible that it DIDN'T change its orbital pattern after such a dramatic event? How would a star getting sucked into a black hole change the trajectory of an object already in orbit around that black hole? Wouldn't it disturb the orbital pattern greatly in the short run, then, settling down, cast the dwarf star into a new long-term orbital pattern? The bigger implication of what I'm asking is whether the dwarf star was actually there and orbiting in that manner before the event, or if the event introduced the dwarf star into orbit or somehow dramatically changed its orbit. Thanks for the time, and thanks especially for the great videos.
AI fan
AI fan 年 前
Hey Derek, what exactly is spinning i.e. what is there to spin if it is really a singularity? Also, if you have 2 black holes of indentical size, in close proximity, with acretion disks on precisely the same plan, but one is inverted wrt the other (so that they are spinning opposite to each other), if matter in both acretion disks is moving at >.5c, what happens when matter from one disk collides with matter from the other as the blackholes spiral in to each other?
AI fan
AI fan 5 ヶ月 前
@Victor-Marius Pîrvan The question was about matter impacting matter where their closing speed is > c
Victor-Marius Pîrvan
My guess is that some matter will be exchanged between the two black holes and some will escape their stable spinning orbit.
TheDirtyRodriguez 10 ヶ月 前
Thank you so much for this content and all the other stuff your channels brought to me/us! With all the chaos in the world and our small little habitats these small lessons soothe me down and bring back a smile on my face. Only my kids and music have a similar effect on me.
RyanRising 年 前
5:22 isn’t the reason you can’t infinitely spin up a black hole beyond that limit because they drag space-time along with them? If it were spinning that fast, an object dropping into the black hole would be deflected in the direction of the spin, meaning ones that would add to its angular momentum get sort of deflected away and stuff that subtracts from the angular momentum gets deflected towards it, if I understand it right. EDIT: ok, looked this up. In more relevant terms, shouldn’t frame-dragging provide a strong theoretical reason why black holes can’t be spun up to the point where they become a naked singularity?
SmarterEveryDay 3 年 前
My flight is taking off. I want to know about black holes! EDIT: HOLY COW MAN I can't imagine how much research you did for this! I've always wondered how star diameters are approximated. Thank you so much for this! Bravo!
BİR İNSAN 10 ヶ月 前
@Veritasium can you not put scary music
Miguel Chipps Inteligente
Tesla referenced human energy 🌬👻jesus christ referenced living waters 💎👨‍🎓👩‍🎓science described water memory 🌊🎭psalms16:24 k,j proverbs27:19 existence psychologically god bless fight the good fight 💖👻💎👨‍🎓👩‍🎓🗽🤍⚖🌪🌬
Chris 年 前
Why can you use newtonian physics to measure the mass of black holes via it's interactions with other bodies that can't be measured by newtonian physics?
@Mike Parker Very intresting question I have also wondered about it sadly it has been 2 years and no reply from Veritasium.
Andriy T
Andriy T 2 年 前
Thank You for a great video, big fan of this channel. I do have a question though and I apologize for potential ridiculousness of it as astro-physics or or really any physics is very far from being my daily subjects of involvement but are much of personal curiosity. So if the massive star that got eaten by the black hole actually got consumed while passing by the black hole then wouldn't it's trajectory have to intersect with the actual event horizon of the black hole in order to be effected or is the animation just not correct? Also wouldn't the mass of the star that got eaten have to be smaller than that or the dwarf star that is apparently circling the black hole emitting those x-rays in order to experience effect of the gravity since the dwarf star manages to circle around without the experience of the same effect? and lastly how come there is any light or debris left circling the black hole? by my logic if the large massive start got engulfed while passing by then there really shouldn't be anything left from it and only hawking radiation would get emitted according to some earlier videos from this channel. Greatly appreciate any potential relative responses :)
Cybernaut13 年 前
I am in awe of your videos and how you masterfully explain them by not only teaching a class but the whole internet.
Marinara Marcato
I love your videos, thank you so much for the time and effort put into creating them. They are great for communicating science people wouldn't know otherwise!
Nick Wilcox
Nick Wilcox 6 ヶ月 前
@Miguel Chipps Inteligente ... what...?
Miguel Chipps Inteligente
Tesla referenced human energy 🌬👻jesus christ referenced living waters science 💎👨‍🎓👩‍🎓science described water memory 🌊🎭psalms16:24 k,j proverbs27:19 existence psychologically god bless fight the good fight 💖👻💎👨‍🎓👩‍🎓🗽🤍⚖🌪🌬
Just Some Guy without a Mustache
I took up astronomy in college and they never talked about interesting stuff like this
@Fissile Missile what else do you want
Fissile Missile
Fissile Missile 29 日 前
@༒☬*ToRnADO*☬༒ Still waiting for an answer!
P. A. Wiley
P. A. Wiley 4 ヶ月 前
Out of all the channels I don't understand, this one is my favorite. I'm partially kidding, of course; much of the math is beyond me, but Muller does brilliantly to help make complex science more accessible for those of us without a significant background in physics and mathematics, but no lack of curiosity.
Onder Ozenc
Onder Ozenc 年 前
Thanks a lot for this video. That spinning phenomenon looks to be due to the coriolis force. I would like to know about the black holes magnetic fields too.
Tev 年 前
If we weren’t affected by radiation somehow, would it be possible to “hear” the spin of a black hole as it travels supersonic and the sound is carried via (radiation or some other form of) waves?
Jonas 年 前
I guess
opticnirvana 2 年 前
I wonder, if you knew the spin and mass of a star before it became a black hole, and then measured the spin of the black hole after it became such, could you determine if the singularity has a size? Shrinking to zero size sounds to me as if it would have an infinite spin.
Dr D
Dr D 年 前
This was a very interesting and well explained video :) Loved it
Mc Spicy
Mc Spicy 年 前
What would happen if the spin of a black hole was greater than the force of the black holes pulling? How close would the matter get?
Mark Simpson
Mark Simpson 年 前
Sheer enjoyment! Thanks for these, Derek. Amazing. I am interested in backholes but r-isco is new to me.
SMG043 ヶ月 前
Excellent presentation as always, thanks for the education.
Holobrine 3 年 前
4:57 Should have chosen diameter, so it would be d_isco Edit: Please sign the petition in the replies if you support this cause
Lu Valour
Lu Valour 10 ヶ月 前
I think it would be a little difficult to measure than radius/r_isco which makes more sense as it is also more intuitive, but that sounds fun lol
Ross G
Ross G 10 ヶ月 前
Panic at the d_isco = 1
Shwibi 年 前
*signs petition*
Vinayak Kulkarni
Aliens : sending some flashes in space to see if anyone is out there Scientist : Nah ! Its a black hole
Ристу Георгиев
Since regular pulses are common in the Universe and occur naturally, aliens, who are trying to contact another intelligent life, would have sent some flashes in a distinct pattern - like for example 1 flash at every prime number seconds.
Emperor Sascharoni
Emperor Sascharoni 9 ヶ月 前
Alien making some selfies at blackhole.
Tᕼᕮ GᖇᕮᗩT SᗩGᕮ Oᐯᕮᖇ ᕼᕮᗩᐯᕮᑎ
I was looking for this comment 💀
acidrock 年 前
I was referred to Veritasium by Michael from Vsauce. he said this channel is great and I can now see why. I appreciate when teachers are unambiguous and don't talk down to me or try to be complicated.
volrath77 年 前
Interesting. Logically, can a black hole's spin exceed 1? If 1 = light speed, wouldn't the r-isco also frame drags space immediately at the event horizon (and possibly a distance just above it) to also light speed and cause particles there to also orbit at light speed. If matter cannot reach light speed, wouldn't it stand to reason that the spin also cannot reach or exceed 1?
Aashish Bharadwaj
How can you measure angular velocity using linear velocity measurement? The spin is measured in rotations per second, not in any vector. We can measure the speed of material on the accretion disc.
Gaetan Luabeya
Gaetan Luabeya ヶ月 前
Thank you for the explanations. Great work thank you
Gaetan Luabeya
Gaetan Luabeya ヶ月 前
Thank you for the explanations. Great work thank you
Paul Mahoney
Paul Mahoney 11 ヶ月 前
You know, I wonder if humanity will ever become so advanced we could try feeding a black hole matter spinning in the same direction to see if we can make it spin to the speed that could form a naked singularity.
Martin P.
Martin P. 7 ヶ月 前
As always, great explanation and animation. Keep it up.
pirjsuka 年 前
What about the outer radius of the disc, the speed of particles there is nearing the speed of light and they are able to escape the enormous gravitational force? Are all those orbits stable, between r_isco and the outer radius? What if the spins of the two collapsing black holes match, does the increase of the total mass compensate, and the resulting spin is still limited to that certain number of rotations per second? It's a very interesting and important fact that black holes don't have a radius on their own, it's their mass and spin that affect the radius of the event horizon and r_isco. Hope I understand this correctly. Naked singularity deserves a dedicated video. Hope it's not banned by JPvid for nudity.
Scrimjaw 2 年 前
See this makes me wonder how scientists can be sure there is a maximum spin speed. Part of, or maybe all the reason as to how/why/what black holes are could be down to the speed at which they spin. The speed observed in the horizon could just be when it starts to pick up.
Robert Kemper
Another fascinating explanation of a cosmic event! One minor issue. Would you mind discontinuing the use of the phrases "Gravitational pull," "Gravitational field," etc? I recognized that in common use these terms are what folks are used to hearing. (Someone you may know did a great job of explaining why gravity is not a force). That won't change until experts use GR terminology that correctly describes the situations discussed. Consider these lost teaching moments.
betaneptune 年 前
What about the effects of the extreme time dilation near the event horizon. Doesn't that prevent matter from entering the black hole as seen by distant observers, like us?
sundar 年 前
Dude I might have cursed a few times before for not giving due importance to ancient wisdom of India. your channel and your work is phenomenal as I think others are struggling to explain while you do it in ease.
Daniel Toschläger
I imagine risco like the whirl in a toilett or bathtube in 3D, as faster it spins (as faster the water floates down the pip/fermions and bosons go down the hole) as steeper and more sharpened the whirl walls are. 😅 You did a very good job in explanation!
Cosmalano 2 年 前
Fantastic video. Well made, great info. I just wonder, why the use of the word spin? Rather than angular momentum.
Harry "Nic" Nicholas
i would be interested in time scales for cosmic events, obviously animation runs at a speed that lets us see the action, real time could take weeks or be gone in a flash, but it's hard to get a grasp of cosmic events, some do take seconds, some take days and others take years, but black holes, galaxies, exploding stars, all these things are a bit hazy to me time-scale wise, stuff might be flying off a star near the speed of light, but it could still be years before a jet of gas, or a cloud of dust can be detected. i'll look, but are there any vids that talk about how long different cosmic events take? thanks.
Ennovative 年 前
Some things were just always meant to be beyond our comprehension. Understanding the universe without science would be like trying to explain to a house cat how big the earth is when it has never even been outside. Even if you could explain something to a cat, there is no way it would be able to wrap their head around just how massive Earth is. Right now, I feel like that house cat looking outside and wondering how much is out there.
The real question is Does the universe spin
cloudpoint 4 ヶ月 前
​@Vady Why does a void need to be created? If one was somehow created, what was there before? An infinite but solid block of lead? No, a void is the absence of creation. It's what you automatically get before anything is created. Space and time are outside of the perspective of the universe and are not things that need to be created. They are merely definitions of two kinds of nothing. But space and time have quantum properties that occasionally allow these voids to interact and transition to a material universe like the one see now.
Vady 4 ヶ月 前
@cloudpoint Your speculation is what I realized one night too, I've always asked myself, what was before the big bang? Nothing? There must have been something. for it to interact in a way to trigger the big bang, but what created that void space with energy, or quantum empty as you named it, what was before it? And I realized, that's how our brain thinks, we are born and we die, there's a beginning and an end to all things, that's all it has seen for all of it's existence, so it naturally wants to associate brith from nothing, to the big bang dillema, except, that doesn't mean that that's how it has to be, it easily could've just been that, an empty quantum space, forever, with no beginning to it. And if it is anything but that, our brains most likely aren't capable to fathom it, it would be like an ant trying to figure out why your average Joe is depressed.
SmileFile_exe 8 ヶ月 前
Dusty Bottoms
Dusty Bottoms 9 ヶ月 前
@Boogdoggggg see that what I think.
cloudpoint 10 ヶ月 前
@Delan Morstik The Universe is everything there is. That’s by definition. A universe is just an invented abstraction so it can mean what we want it to mean. Multiverse conditions may exist, but they would just represent bubble subdivisions of some kind within The Universe. Don’t confuse The Universe with either the Observable Universe or whatever greater but still local region it exists within (a small “u” universe, say). I doubt more than one of these huge subdivisions simultaneously exist because I can’t wrap my mind around the idea of infinite-sized bubbles within an already infinite Universe. Do smaller infinities exist inside bigger infinities? Abstract things like universes don’t really exist anyway, and the space they are said to encompass does not exist either since space is a literally nothing. Just material things within space can exist. Speculation: My understanding is The Universe always existed, it wasn’t created. Before the Big Bang it was just empty quantum space, which intrinsically has energy (due to the uncertainty principle). But empty is still literally nothing. A literal nothing does not need to be created - what’s to be created? At least, there’s no reason to think otherwise. Saying the Big Bang created The Universe (or an instance of it) is mostly wrong. The Big Bang was likely just a phase transition from the quantum void state that The Universe occasionally degenerates into, to a space containing all the material things that we know (e.g. the energy of infinite quantum space partially condensed into matter after hitting an expansion threshold or whatever). This probably happens on a regular basis, like every trillion years for long-lived universe instances (following heat death). Each instance is a kind of a temporal multiverse, maybe with some different laws that depend on the specifics of each transition. If something is in principle not possible to evidence, then we should not absolutely believe in it. Otherwise we could believe in unicorns. But we can speculate logically.
Dustin Young
Dustin Young 11 ヶ月 前
I struggle with videos like this- when we talk about gravity, the conversation often comes back to General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics, but the way we describe gravity in phenomena like this, refers to gravity "pulling" objects rather than "bending spacetime" and i believe the net result is a poor layman's grasp on Quantum Dynamics. But I'm not an expert on astrophysics, just communication, so I could be wrong.
Aleksandra Gieralt
Hey! I am wondering, does anyone know if spinning black holes move/spin through space - i.e. are they mobile and could they potentially move into our solar system. Someone asked me this question and I was stumped for an answer, I knew OF spinning black holes but I do not know if they rotate on an axis or if they move through space.
Jim Sagubigula
Yes, the move through space, and rotater.
bad matter
bad matter 2 年 前
i've tried looking online but can someone explain to me why saturn's rings formed in a ring and not just floating as debris scattered around the planet? the spinning of this reminded me of it and i can't find an explanation of why they would flatten into a ring rather than scatter. is it because of the spin of the planet around the sun, causing the rocks to move with it in that circular pattern? but still they're so clear and refined
Timothy Noll
Timothy Noll 4 ヶ月 前
Do you guys create these animations and some of the illustrations or are they from a top-secret super-amazing stock website? Either way, they're really helpful and beautiful!
BabakoSen 3 年 前
Just FYI, redshift can only be used to calculate distance at very large extra-galactic distances where the expansion of the universe accounts for most of the object's observed motion. At distances where we can resolve individual stars from stellar clusters (as opposed to resolving individual stellar discs), which we can only do within our galaxy and some members of the local galactic group, cosmological redshift can't be used because the Doppler shift primarily traces the stars' peculiar motions within their galaxies or of their host galaxies through their group or cluster. We can use stellar spectra to gauge a star's distance, but to do so we have to compare the spectra to stellar evolutionary models to distinguish dwarfs and giants of the same temperatures and estimate the star's intrinsic luminosity at that stage in its life. For isolated stars (not part of a multiple system or cluster but free-moving in the galactic potential), stellar evolutionary models are often the best distance-estimating tools available, and that's not saying a whole lot.
justinjah91 3 年 前
@BabakoSen Absolutely, Caroll and Ostlie is a great text!
BabakoSen 3 年 前
@Arion Eich "An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics" by Carroll and Ostlie is pretty much *the* essential text for astrophysics at the undergrad level and early graduate levels. If you wanna get more specific, Phillips' "The Physics of Stars" was used in one of my grad courses, but I think it's written straightforwardly enough for an undergrad to use by their junior year or so. I never really got a chance to use my "Stellar Interiors" book by Hansen, Kawaler, and Trimble before I got shunted into the star formation field, but first impressions are that it's pretty standard grad-level stellar structure stuff.
Ricardo Ramírez R
Thank that someone points that out. Calculating distance of stars in our galaxy with redshift does not have any sense.
Was scrolling to see if someone else had commented on this. Fortunately for us, we're living in an era where increasingly more and more isolated stars have parallax-based distances from Hipparcos, Gaia, etc.
Arion Eich
Arion Eich 3 年 前
I know what text books I need to pick up next...
Genius Stuff with ujan
This man deserves a Nobel Prize. His videos are the ones which have motivated me to understand science , not memorize it.
mrnnhnz 年 前
question: how fast can a star go before it's torn apart by its own speed? It seems like half the speed of light would be easily fast enough to do this, which would ruin the whole there-was-a-white-dwarf-orbiting-it theory...
It's really not a question of speed, but of acceleration. What you're talking about has to do with something called the Roche limit which is the minimal distance from a massive object beyond which moons, planets or stars orbiting it ill start breaking apart. This limit actually depends on the orbiting object's density, and white dwarfs are extremely dense which allows them to orbit very far down.
Rabie Abd El-Samad
excellent videos man as always please keep it going
Lee Minard
Lee Minard 年 前
Hey Derek, Pose a question. ( Pt. 4 ) I'm good with all of it, but I have a problem. How does this theory explain the centered, steady state orbit of the rings of Saturn ?
Viper6 3 年 前
Black holes are both amazing and scary at the same time.
Cookie 3 年 前
@Ben Booth I'm just going to comment here, so I can later refer to it.... Thanks for the great explanations!!!!
Ben Booth
Ben Booth 3 年 前
Guys, check this video, it talks about the same stuff we've been talking about. jpvid.net/video/%E3%83%93%E3%83%87%E3%82%AA-S4aqGI1mSqo.html
Ben Booth
Ben Booth 3 年 前
@nikmor 5 Now I'm back from work I'll give a better answer. Any gravitational field is a dent in space-time, that dent is spherical because we are thinking in 3 dimensions of space. Time is also warped, if you were observing an object falling into a black hole, it would become increasingly red-shifted and dimmer until the point where it meets the event horizon where it becomes infinitely red-shifted and infinitely dim. If that object was a clock you would observe that it counted time slower and slower and it would stop at the event horizon. The most basic model of a black hole is called the Schwarzschild metric. A metric is an equation which describes the shortest distance between two points on a surface. An easy example is flat 2 dimensional space, the metric for this surface is Pythagoras. So the Schwarzschild metric describes the geometry of space-time around a non-rotating gravitational object. In this model a black-holes event horizon is perfectly spherical and the singularity is a point with zero volume, finite mass and infinite density. Now in reality there are no non-rotating gravitational objects. A more sophisticated model is the Kerr-Newman metric which described the geometry of space-time around a rotating mass with electromagnetic charge. You may have heard that black-holes can be described with just three numbers, mass, charge and angular momentum and that comes from the Kerr-Newman metric. Now a black-hole in this metric has its event horizon flattened across the poles and the singularity is smeared into a ring. It has been hypothesised that this ring could be a wormhole which leads to a white hole. Its the singularity which holds all the mass, the event horizon is not physical, nothing actually happens at the event horizon it is just a point of no return. As to what an observer would see falling towards an event horizon that's complicated and beyond my ability to fully explain. What I can tell you is this: Imagine falling towards Earth, face first, just before you hit the ground, the Earth would appear to take up nearly exactly half of you sphere of view. For a black-hole, it's scary. The event horizon would appear to wrap around your sphere of view (this happens a tiny bit with Earth, its just so slight that we cant measure it) and at the point where an observer at a large distance would see you hit the event horizon (the point where you become infinitely red-shifted from their perspective) the event horizon would finally close up behind you and you are now permanently cut off from the rest of the universe. The observer sees you become increasingly red-shifted, however if looked behind you as were falling you would see the whole universe become blue-shifted (time speeding up), you would actually see the whole future of the universe play out before you and you would see the end of time just as you were cut-off, providing you could survive the highly focused beam of high-energy gamma-rays which is the light from the rest of the universe.
Ben Booth
Ben Booth 3 年 前
@nikmor 5 It's the size of the event horizon :)
nikmor 5
nikmor 5 3 年 前
@Ben Booth holy crap value =100 An when we are talking about the sizes of black holes, are we counting the event horizon? And what about the singularity? And are black holes spheres or dents in space-time? Edit: (I watched the video)
Michael Newman
I have always had a problem understanding the concept of a "spinning" black hole. This video helps a bit, but..... With my admittedly very layman's understanding of a black hole, I thought that we conceptualize a singularity as a "one dimensional" point in space-time. If it is spinning though the singularity must be spherical, right - not a point? What is actually spinning? Is the mass at the singularity still regarded as existing in three dimensions? As I understand it don't we say that mathematically time stops at the singularity? How does anything spin without doing so in time? I guess you can't really answer this if our current laws of physics, including relativity "break down" at the singularity?
Quentin Arnaud
Quentin Arnaud 2 年 前
Nice video ! But I still don't understand something related to black hole's spin, maybe some of you guys can help me. As matter falls into the cosmic oger, it's spin contributes to the black hole's spin, fair. But does matter REALLY fall into the black hole ? I mean, from our perspective, it should not. Matter should appear freezing and red shifting before crossing the event horizon. To me the spin of a black hole should remain constant after it's formation. Where do you guys think is the flaw in this reasoning ? Thanks
Samuel L
Samuel L 年 前
I apologize in advance for my ignorance, but I'm just curious. 9:35 - If we want a deeper understaning of the growth of black holes, why should we look further out in the old universe instead of directing our gaze towards younger black holes in close proximity? Is it because younger black holes are more difficult to detect? Wouldn't events such as this ⬆️ occur more frequently in the younger parts of the universe, or is this notion wrong?
Justin Choo TC
Justin Choo TC 7 ヶ月 前
Great video! But this makes me mad that engineers have found a way to make machines adapt to the vacuum of heatless space that can capture light from an infinitetasmal ligjtyears away but not engineer a droid to explore the mariana trench and the crushing depth of our planet's ocean. I know they have been making progress but i wanna know what happens in the Bermuda Triangle, deep sea creatures and myths surrounding lost cities ughhhhh. But still great achievement exploring space. Hopefully not for colonizing but just as visitors
Cheranetube 3 年 前
I am curious how someone could dislike this video. Perhaps they have trouble understanding it, the burden of knowledge is too much for them, or perhaps they too, are really uncomfortable with naked singularities.
Zoli 年 前
@bogen broom no
no k
no k 年 前
Man this video made me existential and depressed
Keyan 1
Keyan 1 年 前
@Shaun James bro for réal if you go to one of the top comments done by Nikko A there’s a legit flare earther
Amanda 年 前
Perhaps because he is teaching the Really Way Up There Stuff and gets the terminology mixed up on the Basic stuff you need in order to understand that cool way up stuff way up there -- so most folks are like, "huh wow cool, but I don't get it, and now, instead of Be Smarter like I wanted to be when I clicked on video to learn something, now I Feel Dumber -- hmmm maybe 'they' were right about me and I should just stop trying?" Too bad so sad. C'mon guys!! It's D=M/V Density equals Mass over Volume or Density is Mass divided by Volume -- it's so simple and he's saying Mass when he should be saying Density or blarggggg nvm Just Yeah, you're right ... perhaps we're all just Uncomfortable with Our Own Nakedness... lmfao roflcopter gg ^______^
Ian Murdoch
Ian Murdoch 年 前
just a few months later, and you'd have been able to show an *actual picture of a black hole*. incredible.
David Gatlin
David Gatlin 3 ヶ月 前
When calculating distances to stars by looking at the degree of redshift of its spectrum, how are relativistic effects estimated? The redshift is due to spacetime expansion between here and the star stretching the light... But theres also a relative velocity between here and there star.. and theres also a variety of different gravitational fields between here and the star... So many extra unknowns that i cant fathom how this is estimated. Time itself is passing variably not only for the star but also the space it's light must pass through to reach us.
Hrishikesh Dutta
Hrishikesh Dutta 9 ヶ月 前
I love watching your videos. I am not a student of science but I love science. I want knowledge and your channel is the place to acquire knowledge.
Kaiser Epsilon
Considering that things that are spinning never want to stop spinning, it would make sense that a star falling into a black hole at an angle would force some more spinning power into the black hole, of course, this would rely upon the idea that black holes are physical objects, which, until we can observe one up close, is still unknown. I am not an expert in this subject, if I am wrong, please tell me how.
Superman Ohm
Superman Ohm 年 前
Thank you 🙇 without you we won't be able to learn so much 🙏
With an accretion disk orbiting fast enough at a far enough orbit, if it was gradually pulled into an orbit with smaller radius, is there any point at which the matter's tangential velocity would stop increasing?
Comment_Bot432 11 ヶ月 前
Wait does that mean as black hole spins faster, their event horizon shrinks? What would happen if you were in a location behind the event horizon and suddenly event horizon shrank allowing you to exit the black hole? I once heard true time travel is possible behind the event horizon. Would this allow us to travel back in time?
Necati Gün Akal
Thats a perfect video, thank you. I d be happy if you could enlighten me about smth. Is the black hole black just because the light cannot escape from it, Or is it the camera that cannot define time twist? For ex, if we watch a black hole "x" years more, could we see a late light?
Paul Mahoney
Paul Mahoney 11 ヶ月 前
Our understanding of black holes is that anything within their event horizons cannot escape even if it is going at the speed of light
The Exoplanets Channel
Love your videos about space !
Pryor Nyame
Pryor Nyame 3 年 前
You would love David La Point his video for a better understanding of space
Paul Johnson
Paul Johnson 3 年 前
me too!
jagadeesh padi
jagadeesh padi 2 年 前
Love your videos ... All the time .... BTW how was it that specifically 4.5B years ago that the collision happened??
Iris W
Iris W 6 ヶ月 前
I idealize being a physicist/astronomist bc imagine observing this live (and actually knowing what you see and what it means). I could die peacefully thereafter
James Lane
James Lane 2 年 前
Could there be an electro magnetic or other force emanating from supermassive black holes that accounts for dark matter? Or counteracts dark energy In areas of black hole concentration. Maybe it is undetectable because it is just the baseline for what we could call 0 in most experiments to detect it. Or am I way too out there!
James Lane
James Lane 2 年 前
Another idea, what if spinning or the curving of space time from the supermassive reaches out subtly over enough distance to account for dark matter. Or maybe even time dilation over great distance?
Abhas Jain
Abhas Jain 2 年 前
You are great at explaining.
Alejandro Sánchez
Now I am confused. If the dwarf star is spinning around the black hole and we can see the back part of the accretion disk because of the black hole warping the light behind it, shouldn't the telescopes also display the light of the dwarf star when it is behind the black hole?
Lauren 年 前
I really wanted to see a picture of the "naked singularity" and had it typed into google before I realized that's probably not gonna give me the exact results I want
Puntana 9 ヶ月 前
It’s certainly gonna give you the answers I want.. 😏
Drakthar 10 ヶ月 前
I think the only chance we would get is if for some reason light escapes from the black holes when they collide, as the event would be quite chaotic.
Leo Ciresi
Leo Ciresi 10 ヶ月 前
If Tetrimidion and Invictus collided,
Lu Valour
Lu Valour 10 ヶ月 前
Gave me a lame movie title :/ Rotten Tomatoes gave it 27% lmao
joshua daniel
joshua daniel 2 年 前
I don't know if anyone else can relate to what I'm about to say, but when you really think about this and the vastness of the universe, it's truly overwhelming. I couldn't get through the full video, I need a break 😂
Philly G
Philly G 9 ヶ月 前
Really well put together documentary. Mass, spin, wouldn’t temperature play a role seeing that a black holes are so cold?
Edson Andrade
Edson Andrade 10 ヶ月 前
Excellent explanation. One question that bothers me for years is if the black holes are just like that, holes, or like the back you’ve used as an example? Because, if the blackhole does indeed feed off of everything around it, a360 degrees globe would make more sense than a flat surface with a hole on it please let me know you thoughts
Fire Angel
Fire Angel 7 ヶ月 前
A stationary black hole is spherical, any spinning black hole will be nearly spherical. In nature they are probably all spinning. However the part you are looking at is not the black hole, it's the accretion disk. That is gas and dust and lumps of rock etc. spiralling it's way into the black hole. In the vicinity of any large body such matter always ends up forming into a disk that rotates, and the more gravity the central body has the faster it will rotate and the bigger the disk can become. Around a black hole as the material spins and new matter is drawn in there is frictional heating that brings it up to tens of thousands of degrees, so it glows ferociously in all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. The radiation given off is how we detect black holes that have an accretion disk. Those that don't have an accretion disk are just black, giving off nothing; those are about 95% of the black holes in the universe.
Man in The Moon
Man in The Moon 10 ヶ月 前
Impressive, as always.
Dosadoodle 10 ヶ月 前
If time slows down to a standstill near the event horizon, then if we cross the event horizon, does time stop for us? That is, do we stop at the event horizon? If so, would this mean that black holes are layers of objects as they fall in?
mkevilempire 2 年 前
Is 2:43 (gravitational effects of the black hole) recorded images or a simulation? If recorded, do you have details on it?
Silvio Francisco
Hi Derek. Everything fine. But there is a problem here. It is impossible to hide behind a black hole. For instance, if a star gets eclipsed by a black hole, its image, seem from a point of view far apart, turn into a ring that goes around the shade of black hole (the edge of the visible event horizon) and merges with itself again on the other side. A white dwarf that is orbiting the black hole doesn't get dimmer as it passes behind the black hole. How can we observe periodic oscillations on the intensity of the white dwarf x-rays if it doesn't get dimmer? I think some ingredient in your explanation, which is wonderful, is missing. Perhaps the oscillations in the intensity are due to a different effect. Yes, you are right. It is due to red shifting caused by the spin. I think this point is not so clear in your (wonderful) explanation. I think as you are giving the correct explanation, the CGI are suggesting a different story. One see that the white dwarf disappears as it passes behind the black hole.
Adam 2 年 前
What if two black holes with spin 1 in the same direction merged? I guess the net result would still be 1 since the mass doubled the rotational velocity would remain the same to conserve angular momentum
Tiuhtimymman 11 ヶ月 前
Honestly it's kinda scary and sad to think that these things happened millions of years ago. We are seeing these magnificent things so late, that whatever we are looking at might not be there anymore.
Tyko bray
Tyko bray 年 前
People on earth: "The sun doesnt go around the earth! The earth moves around the sun!" People on blackholes:
Leo Ciresi
Leo Ciresi 10 ヶ月 前
AB isGamer
AB isGamer 11 ヶ月 前
@IronHideIII aka they dead
Krithik Sankar
Krithik Sankar 3 年 前
Just curious....If the galaxy is 290 million light years away and we are detecting this event now, does that mean the event actually happened 290 million years ago ? since the information would have taken that much time to reach us.
dilukhin 3 年 前
You might not beleive, but EVERYTING you see has happened in a past.
Virnali Nebrida-Sunga
@Kellogg's Flakes the only way it could work is if their ships have in built time travel machines but that creates a lot of holes
Kellogg's Flakes
@Virnali Nebrida-Sunga Not only that but the bending in hyper space is not only traveling through space, but space time, if they travel one light year and go back to the same planet, everyone they know is extinct. But sci fi is always cool.
Mig Ram
Mig Ram 3 年 前
@Al S All information that arrives in our eyes and subsequently processed by our brains are from the past. Albeit nanoseconds from it. 😂 All we see has already happened.
Virnali Nebrida-Sunga
@KLAbe ....you don't understand so be quiet
Mason Kungle
Mason Kungle ヶ月 前
What I'm hearing now is that black holes go through a certain amount of dormancy and then feeding frenzies. So when they say a star got too close and.torn apart, could it also be that black holes brings them in with discerning gravity?
Aaron Paul
Aaron Paul 11 ヶ月 前
Can someone please explain this: @ 8:00 He mentioned there was a white dwarf star orbiting the black hole. In that case, why is that star not torn apart by tidal forces like the massive star that created the accretion disk?
Jacomaat 年 前
quick tought: can a black hole's mass and its spin equal out so no matter gets pulled in anymore? or will it's mass always be to great since it's spin is being created by matter getting pulled into the black hole?
Hyazza 2 年 前
I have a question about how time behaves inside a black hole, reggarding the spin. If for a distant observer time seems to go slower the closer you are to the singularity, does this mean that at the singularity there's no time for any observer outside the event horizon? If so, how can the accretion disk's r isco be affected by a spin that is not actually happening outside the zero dimensional singularity because of the infinitely slow time? In simple words, how can a singularity spin if there is no time?
John Hammer
John Hammer 3 年 前
Always wondered how scientists were able to come to conclusions. Would love to see more of this type of videos. Thanks
idman Magar
idman Magar 11 ヶ月 前
What effect does spin of black hole has on the space time fabric ?
Rico G
Rico G 2 ヶ月 前
What sort of temperatures do accretion disks reach ? How luminous are they compared to regular stars ? Do accretion disks emit gamma radiation ?
Cosmo Rito
Cosmo Rito ヶ月 前
Him: Mass is relatively easy to determine *See's how it is determined* Me: Astrophysicst are smart AF
Zaro2008 10 ヶ月 前
Black Holes are truly one of the most mind blowing things out there 🕳
Tommy Gunrunner
Tommy Gunrunner 11 ヶ月 前
2:56 "it's generally accepted that black holes are at the centers of most galaxies" Does that mean it's generally accepted that some galaxies don't have black holes? What is the alternative to a black hole to keep a galaxy together?
Tommy Gunrunner
Tommy Gunrunner 11 ヶ月 前
@Релёкс84 interesting. Obviously the addition of dark matter is required here too. I just didn't realize a black hole alternative at galactic centers was viable. Am I getting this right? What other central galactic phenomenon is proposed, if any?
Релёкс84 11 ヶ月 前
Black holes don't keep galaxies together : the galaxy's own mass and especially its dark matter does that. There are no galaxies that are confirmed to not have a supermassive black hole, but it's not impossible such galaxies exist.
Luiggi Pagliarini
Luiggi Pagliarini 10 ヶ月 前
School should teach this way. Awesome video as always.
Neil Gupta
Neil Gupta 11 ヶ月 前
4:50 Since we live in 3 dimensions, isn't it possible for the spin of the black hole to be on a completely different axis from the spin of the accretion disk?
Релёкс84 11 ヶ月 前
The accretion disk is forced into the black hole's plane of rotation notably because of frame-dragging.
LeoMascara 3 ヶ月 前
What happens (or is expected to happen) if a star with more mass than a given black hole approaches it? Will the black hole eat the star or will the star "eat" the black hole?
joe blogs
joe blogs 年 前
but if blackhole spin makes it go faster than light at the point of the event horizon, how does it eat anything? Would it not theoretically turn into a white hole? makes me wonder if the universe was just a collapsing black hole that had its spin reach a point that it could not longer keep compressing and so launched its matter outwards into what is the big bang xd..
stat a87c
stat a87c 2 年 前
How can a well in spacetime be spinning in spacetime? What is ACTUALLY spinning and how can we even tell if everything that ever fell into it never passed the horizon from our reference frame?
Maxime Mercier
its astonishing how complex space is !
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